Building thermal insulation – which one to choose?

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Properly selected thermal insulation of the building allows you to avoid high heating bills in the future. Our house will heat up slower in summer and cool down in winter, which will affect the comfort of life of the household members. What material to choose for thermal insulation and what does it depend on?

There is a wide range of thermal insulation products on the market that differ in quality and properties. Choosing the right insulation method is one of the most important decisions when building a house.

The most commonly used thermal insulation materials are: mineral wool and polystyrene, but these are not all options offered by manufacturers. Only a thorough knowledge of the available materials (their purpose, characteristics and costs) will allow you to make a good decision


Mineral wool (rock and glass)

The advantage of mineral wool is its flexibility, which allows for tight filling of any place. This type of thermal insulation guarantees greater safety in the event of a fire, because mineral wool is completely non-flammable. Importantly, the use of this product guarantees adequate ventilation of the walls. The problem arises when the wool becomes saturated with moisture; as a consequence it will lose its insulating properties. Mineral wool is perfect for thermal insulation: sandwich walls, floors and filling frame structures. However, this material is sometimes a lot of expense. It should be remembered that the correct types of mineral wool should be used for specific types of surfaces. 

Plates – (hard) intended for utility attics, flat roofs and external walls, (soft) used for insulation of non-habitable attic floors, wooden ceilings, floors on joists or partition walls.

Tubes – designed to insulate pipes.

Granulate – designed to insulate hard-to-reach gaps, e.g. flat roofs.

Mats – due to their construction, they are intended to insulate light partition walls or rafter roofs and to insulate floors in utility and non-utility attics.


Styropic (Polistyren Ekspandzany)

Expanded polystyrene is a slightly cheaper product than mineral wool, which does not mean that it is less effective. The biggest advantages of the material are resistance to moisture and rot, and the disadvantages – non-resistance to high temperatures. Ceilings should not be insulated with polystyrene due to its flammability. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that this material should not be combined with some types of solvent paints, adhesives or adhesives. The density of the material affects its strength – the higher the density, the more resistant the polystyrene. It does not mean, however, that the more resistant polystyrene should be used just in case in each case; sometimes its less resistant variety is enough.


EPS 50 and 70 – a variety intended for insulation of three-layer walls and flat roofs. ESP 70 – resistant to slight mechanical loads.

EPS 100 – used to insulate floors and roofs.

EPS 200 – hard polystyrene with high resistance to mechanical loads, used for insulation of basement walls, ceilings and foundations.

Tread plates – provide insulation and ventilation (thanks to the grooves that allow air flow).

Waterproof boards – designed for elements exposed to frequent contact with water: basements or foundations.

Roofing felt boards – one side covered, slightly longer than the polystyrene board, asphalt felt. The design allows you to create overlaps in the places where the panels are joined. Designed for insulation of flat roofs and terraces.



How to choose the type of insulation and not make a mistake?

Home insulation is a very expensive investment, but looking for savings in such an important procedure is at least unwise. The final choice of insulation materials depends on: the investor’s needs, method, finances and places to be insulated. It is worth planning the operation well, bearing in mind that in some situations the materials can be used interchangeably – e.g. expensive mineral wool should be replaced with cheaper polystyrene. However, this procedure will not always work.

Unfamiliarity with the types of thermal insulation materials and their purpose guarantees three problems: replacement of thermal insulation in the future, waste of time due to poor fit of the material to the place, high heating bills. And all of this combines ultimately into one thing – increasing investment costs.



Project EWI Specialist LTD – After



Project EWI Specialist LTD- Before

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